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Swiss needle cast
(SNC): the name of the foliage disease of Douglas-fir caused by the fungal pathogenPhaeocryptopus gaeumannii. It is known as a “cast” disease, because it causes the needles to be prematurely shed, or cast, from the tree, resulting in sparse tree crowns and reduced growth. Although it is called “Swiss” needle cast, the fungus that causes this disease is native to the western United States throughout the range of Douglas-fir, and is an exotic pathogen in Europe and New Zealand. However, the disease was first discovered in Douglas-fir plantations in Switzerland in the mid-1920s, and the name has persisted.